Tue. Jun 18th, 2024

The B.C. Treaty Process has often been very controversial. First of all, many First Nation communities have dropped out or refused to participate based on their belief that the process extinguishes titles favouring the B.C. government, allowing the provincial government to continue developing lands at the expense of their territories and cultures. Secondly, there is always a significant difference between what the First Nation Peoples see as their “Original Title” to the land and its resources and the Canadian and B.C. legal notion of ‘Aboriginal Title.’ For these reasons, many consider the B.C. Treaty Process to have failed at settling issues of Aboriginal title.  The debates are ongoing, preventing further negotiations from continuing.

Modern Land Claims and First Nation Perspective

Reconciling the Canadian legal understanding of Aboriginal title with First Nation peoples’ knowledge is not a straight forward task.  The idea that Aboriginal title would be a proprietary right to the land stands in contrast to First Nation peoples’ concept of land ownership.In their concepts, the creator provided the land to them and their future generations. They have argued that they retain inherent land rights to territories given their creator. The lands are not owned, but rather the land and the people exists in a reciprocal relationship. In this regard, Indigenous activists note that Aboriginal title cannot be surrendered but only shared — “First Nation Peoples retain inherent land rights to traditional territories.”

Based on the First Nation viewpoint, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People concluded that Aboriginal title does not include “the right to alienate or sell land to outsiders, to destroy or diminish lands or resources, or to appropriate lands or resources for private gain without regard to reciprocal obligations.” Summarizing this viewpoint, the “cede, release, yield up and surrender” written in the land treaties constitute an agreement upon the conditions by which the land would be shared instead of a surrender of Aboriginal title.

Although the British Columbian government created B.C. Treaty Process to reach agreement, the disagreement with First Nations regard to Aboriginal title makes the process fruitless. As you can see, the Canadian legal understanding of the Aboriginal title is that it is a burden on the Crown’s underlying title.

In this understanding, the British Columbian government continues to interpret Aboriginal title to be something that can be ceded or transferred only to the Crown. This legal interpretation accepts the Crown’s underlying title as a given, and did not require the Crown to prove or validate its claim to sovereignty. Many First Nation communities are uncomfortable with the legal interpretation made by the government because they believe the interpretation assumes the Crown’s sovereignty without questioning its legitimacy.

Who is right? I think reconciling the Canadian legal understanding of Aboriginal title with First Nation understanding remains a great challenge.


Crowe, Keith. “Comprehensive Land Claims: Modern Treaties”. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 11 July 2019, Historica Canada. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/comprehensive-land-claims-modern-treaties. Accessed 16 December 2021.

Dyck, Lillian E., et al. A Commitment Worth Preserving: Reviving the British Columbia Treaty Process. Canada Senate, Ottawa, Ont., 2012.

Malone, Molly and Libby Chisholm. “Indigenous Territory”.  The Canadian Encyclopedia, 05 July 2016, Historica Canada. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/indigenous-territory. Accessed 16 December 2021.

Irwin, Robert. “Aboriginal Title”.  The Canadian Encyclopedia, 25 September 2018, Historica Canada. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-title. Accessed 02 December 2021.

Hanson, Eric. “Aboriginal Title.” Indigenous Foundations. First Nations and Indigenous Studies UBC, 2009. Accessed 16 December 2021.

Raibmon, Paige, “Unmaking native Space: A genealogy of Indian Policy, Settler Practice, and the Microtechniques of Dispossession” in Alexandra Harmon, ed. The Power of Promises: Rethinking Indian Treaties in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008: 56-85.

Tennant, Paul, Aboriginal People and Politics: The Indian Land Question in British Columbia, 1849-1989 Vancouver: UBC Press, 1990.

Woolford, Andrew. “Negotiating Affirmative Repair: Symbolic Violence in the British Columbia Treaty Process.” Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 29, no. 1, 2004, pp. 111.

This is an opinion article; the views expressed by me. Follow him on Twitter: @hkpltw And @Terry_Terence97

6,329 thoughts on “B.C. Treaty Process Controversy: Canadian and Indigenous Perspectives in Land Claims and Aboriginal Title”
  1. Im pretty pleased to find this great site. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely loved every little bit of it and I have you saved as a favorite to see new stuff on your blog.

  2. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  3. Скоро возводимые здания: прибыль для бизнеса в каждом блоке!
    В нынешней эпохе, где время – деньги, сооружения с быстрым монтажем стали реальным спасением для бизнеса. Эти современные конструкции обладают высокую прочность, финансовую экономию и быстрый монтаж, что дает им возможность идеальным выбором для различных коммерческих проектов.
    [url=https://bystrovozvodimye-zdanija-moskva.ru/]Быстровозводимые здания[/url]
    1. Срочное строительство: Минуты – важнейший фактор в предпринимательстве, и быстровозводимые здания позволяют существенно уменьшить временные рамки строительства. Это особенно выгодно в постановках, когда требуется быстрый старт бизнеса и начать извлекать прибыль.
    2. Финансовая эффективность: За счет улучшения производственных процедур элементов и сборки на объекте, расходы на скоростройки часто бывает ниже, по отношению к традиционным строительным проектам. Это позволяет сократить затраты и достичь большей доходности инвестиций.
    Подробнее на [url=https://xn--73-6kchjy.xn--p1ai/]www.scholding.ru[/url]
    В заключение, моментальные сооружения – это превосходное решение для коммерческих инициатив. Они включают в себя молниеносную установку, экономичность и высокую прочность, что сделало их лучшим выбором для предпринимателей, желающих быстро начать вести бизнес и извлекать прибыль. Не упустите возможность сократить издержки и сэкономить время, наилучшие объекты быстрого возвода для ваших будущих проектов!

  4. Моментально возводимые здания: бизнес-польза в каждом блоке!
    В современном мире, где секунды – доллары, быстровозводимые здания стали истинным спасением для предпринимательства. Эти современные конструкции объединяют в себе высокую прочность, финансовую выгоду и быстроту установки, что позволяет им отличным выбором для бизнес-проектов разных масштабов.
    [url=https://bystrovozvodimye-zdanija-moskva.ru/]Легковозводимые здания из металлоконструкций цена[/url]
    1. Срочное строительство: Моменты – наиважнейший аспект в бизнесе, и скоро возводимые строения обеспечивают значительное снижение времени строительства. Это высоко оценивается в ситуациях, когда важно быстро начать вести бизнес и начать получать доход.
    2. Экономия средств: За счет оптимизации процессов производства элементов и сборки на месте, цена скоростроительных зданий часто оказывается ниже, по сравнению с традиционными строительными проектами. Это предоставляет шанс сократить издержки и добиться более высокой доходности инвестиций.
    Подробнее на [url=https://xn--73-6kchjy.xn--p1ai/]www.scholding.ru[/url]
    В заключение, моментальные сооружения – это лучшее решение для предпринимательских задач. Они комбинируют в себе быстроту монтажа, экономическую эффективность и твердость, что позволяет им первоклассным вариантом для предпринимателей, желающих быстро начать вести бизнес и получать деньги. Не упустите шанс экономии времени и денег, оптимальные моментальные сооружения для вашего предстоящего предприятия!

  5. I want to show thanks to this writer just for bailing me out of this scenario. Because of surfing through the search engines and coming across things which are not helpful, I figured my life was gone. Living without the answers to the problems you have sorted out all through your good posting is a serious case, and ones that might have negatively affected my career if I hadn’t discovered your blog post. Your personal training and kindness in touching the whole lot was crucial. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I had not encountered such a stuff like this. I can at this time look forward to my future. Thanks a lot very much for your reliable and result oriented help. I will not be reluctant to refer your blog to anybody who needs and wants recommendations about this topic.

  6. Thanks a lot for providing individuals with such a breathtaking opportunity to read in detail from this website. It is often so pleasing and full of a great time for me and my office colleagues to visit the blog minimum three times in 7 days to find out the latest guidance you have got. Not to mention, I am just at all times amazed with all the sensational tips and hints you serve. Selected 4 areas in this article are in truth the most beneficial we’ve ever had.

  7. Эффективное тепловая изоляция фасадов — комфорт и бюджетность в своем недвижимости!
    Согласитесь, ваш коттедж заслуживает наилучшего! Теплосбережение наружных стен – не всего лишь решение для сбережения на отоплении, это вложение в комфорт и долговечность вашего здания.
    ✨ Почему термоизоляция с специалистами?
    Профессионализм: Наши специалисты – квалифицированные специалисты. Мы все заботимся о каждом элементе, чтобы обеспечить вашему недвижимости идеальное термоизоляция.
    Сумма теплосбережения: Наша бригада ценим ваш денежные средства. [url=https://stroystandart-kirov.ru/]Стоимость утепления дома снаружи цена за 1м2[/url] – от 1350 руб./кв.м. Это вложение капитала в ваше комфортабельное будущее!
    Энергосберегающие решения: Забудьте о потерях тепла! Наш метод не только сохраняют тепловую атмосферу, но и дарят вашему недвижимости новый уровень теплосбережения энергоэффективности.
    Создайте свой домашний уголок комфортным и изысканным!
    Подробнее на [url=https://stroystandart-kirov.ru/]официальном сайте
    Не предоставляйте без внимания свой жилье на произвольное стечение обстоятельств. Доверьтесь специалистам нашей компании и создайте уют вместе с нами-специалистами!

  8. Эффективное воздухонепроницаемость наружных стен — прекрасие и экономическая эффективность в личном жилье!
    Согласитесь, ваш коттедж заслуживает выдающегося! Тепловая изоляция облицовки – не всего лишь решение для экономии на тепле, это вклад в благополучие и долговечность вашего помещения.
    ✨ Почему теплоизоляция с нами?
    Мастерство: Наша бригада – квалифицированные специалисты. Наш коллектив заботимся о каждом аспекте, чтобы обеспечить вашему домовладению идеальное изоляция.
    Расценки утепления: Наша компания ценим ваш денежные средства. [url=https://stroystandart-kirov.ru/]Сколько стоит квадратный метр утепления дома[/url] – начиная с 1350 руб./кв.м. Это вложение денег в ваше приятное будущее!
    Энергосберегающие решения: Забудьте о теплопотерях! Наш подход не только сохраняют тепловую энергию, но и дарят вашему домовладению новый стандарт энергоэффективности.
    Сделайте свой жилище комфортным и стильным и привлекательным!
    Подробнее на [url=https://stroystandart-kirov.ru/]веб-сайте компании[/url]
    Не покидайте свой домовладение на волю случая. Доверьтесь специалистам и создайте комфорт вместе с нами!

  9. I happen to be writing to let you know of the beneficial encounter my wife’s child developed reading through the blog. She picked up a wide variety of things, with the inclusion of how it is like to have a marvelous teaching spirit to let many others really easily learn about some tortuous subject matter. You really surpassed my expected results. I appreciate you for showing the good, trusted, edifying and even fun tips on the topic to Evelyn.

  10. Thanks a lot for giving everyone a very superb chance to check tips from this web site. It is often very kind plus packed with a lot of fun for me and my office fellow workers to search your blog at minimum thrice every week to read the fresh things you have got. And indeed, I am also usually contented for the spectacular ideas you give. Certain two tips in this article are without a doubt the finest we have all had.

  11. My wife and i got quite thankful when Louis managed to conclude his investigation through the ideas he was given using your web site. It’s not at all simplistic to simply find yourself releasing guides which usually some other people may have been trying to sell. And now we fully understand we’ve got the blog owner to give thanks to for that. The entire illustrations you’ve made, the straightforward site menu, the friendships you can aid to create – it is everything extraordinary, and it’s really aiding our son and our family feel that that concept is exciting, which is wonderfully essential. Many thanks for all!

  12. I intended to compose you a tiny observation in order to thank you very much over again over the unique opinions you’ve provided here. It was quite wonderfully open-handed with people like you to make openly just what most people could have offered for an electronic book to earn some profit for themselves, most notably since you could have done it if you ever considered necessary. These tactics as well served to be a fantastic way to understand that other individuals have the identical passion much like mine to figure out a whole lot more around this issue. Certainly there are some more fun periods up front for individuals who read your blog post.

  13. I have to express my appreciation to this writer just for rescuing me from such a issue. After checking through the online world and meeting concepts which were not beneficial, I was thinking my entire life was well over. Being alive minus the approaches to the issues you’ve fixed through your website is a critical case, as well as ones that could have in a negative way affected my entire career if I had not encountered your web site. Your natural talent and kindness in controlling every part was crucial. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t come across such a solution like this. I am able to at this moment look forward to my future. Thanks so much for this professional and result oriented guide. I will not hesitate to propose the sites to anyone who needs assistance on this topic.

  14. I am typically to running a blog and i actually appreciate your content. The article has really peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your site and keep checking for brand spanking new information.

  15. I wanted to post you a tiny observation to be able to say thanks a lot the moment again considering the wonderful tips you’ve provided in this case. It’s so generous with you in giving extensively exactly what a lot of folks would have marketed as an electronic book in order to make some profit for their own end, principally considering the fact that you might well have tried it in case you considered necessary. The advice additionally served to become a great way to realize that other individuals have the same dreams similar to mine to understand significantly more around this issue. Certainly there are a lot more pleasurable periods up front for many who scan through your website.

  16. I simply had to say thanks all over again. I am not sure the things I would’ve gone through in the absence of the pointers provided by you over such field. It has been the alarming situation in my opinion, but considering the specialised fashion you dealt with the issue made me to jump for gladness. Now i’m grateful for this service and then wish you are aware of an amazing job your are doing instructing men and women with the aid of your blog post. I’m certain you’ve never come across all of us.

  17. I definitely wanted to write down a simple message so as to express gratitude to you for all of the awesome tips you are posting on this website. My rather long internet look up has at the end of the day been paid with really good information to talk about with my guests. I would admit that many of us visitors are truly endowed to exist in a superb network with very many marvellous professionals with beneficial guidelines. I feel quite grateful to have used the website page and look forward to really more fun times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for all the details.

  18. A lot of thanks for your entire work on this web site. Kim delights in making time for internet research and it is simple to grasp why. Most people notice all concerning the dynamic method you present valuable tips and hints via your website and therefore increase contribution from people on the area then our own simple princess is always being taught a great deal. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You have been conducting a really good job.

  19. Забота о недвижимости – это забота о спокойствии. Утепление фасадов – это не только стильный внешний вид, но и гарантия сохранения тепла в вашем уединенном уголке. Наша бригада, бригада мастеров, предлагаем вам сделать ваш дом в прекрасное место обитания.
    Наши дизайнерские решения – это не просто теплоизоляция, это творческий процесс с каждым строительным блоком. Мы стремимся к гармонии между визуальным восприятием и практической целесообразностью, чтобы ваше жилище превратилось не только комфортным, но и прекрасным.
    И самое важное – разумная цена! Мы уверены, что высококачественные услуги не должны быть сверхдорогими. [url=https://ppu-prof.ru/]Утепление фасадов за 1 кв[/url] начинается всего начиная с 1250 рублей за квадрат.
    Применение современных технологий и материалов высокого качества позволяют нам создавать утепление, обеспечивающее долговечность и надежность. Прощайте холодным стенам и дополнительным тратам на отопление – наше утепление станет вашим надежной преградой перед холодом.
    Подробнее на [url=https://ppu-prof.ru/]ppu-prof.ru/[/url]
    Не откладывайте на потом заботу о счастье в вашем уголке. Обращайтесь к квалифицированным специалистам, и ваш дом превратится настоящим произведением искусства, которое принесет вам тепло и удовлетворение. Вместе мы создадим место для жизни, где вам будет по-настоящему уютно!

  20. Needed to send you a bit of word to finally say thanks yet again regarding the fantastic basics you have shown in this case. It was certainly extremely generous with people like you to deliver unreservedly what exactly many people would’ve advertised for an e-book to end up making some profit on their own, specifically considering the fact that you could have done it in the event you desired. These points also acted like the fantastic way to be aware that many people have similar dream the same as my own to figure out a little more with respect to this matter. I believe there are thousands of more pleasurable times up front for those who check out your blog.

  21. I and my friends ended up examining the good items found on your web page and then suddenly got an awful feeling I had not thanked you for those techniques. Most of the people are actually so passionate to study all of them and have now simply been enjoying those things. Appreciation for being very kind as well as for making a decision on variety of beneficial information millions of individuals are really eager to know about. Our sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to earlier.

  22. I really wanted to develop a small message to say thanks to you for all of the precious concepts you are placing here. My rather long internet search has at the end of the day been paid with excellent know-how to write about with my friends and family. I would claim that many of us readers are extremely lucky to exist in a fabulous website with many outstanding people with useful strategies. I feel somewhat blessed to have seen the web pages and look forward to tons of more thrilling minutes reading here. Thank you once more for everything.

  23. A lot of thanks for all your valuable work on this web page. My mum enjoys going through internet research and it is easy to understand why. A number of us learn all about the powerful method you present advantageous guidelines on the web site and even invigorate response from other ones on the area and our daughter is always studying a lot. Enjoy the rest of the year. You are always carrying out a really good job.